2013 draft constitution
 
 

PART ONE: THE STATE

Article 1


The Arab Republic of Egypt is a sovereign state, united and indivisible, of which no part shall be conceded. Its system is democratic republic, and is based on citizenship and the rule of law. 


The Egyptian people are part of the Arab nation; they seek its integration and unity. Egypt is part of the Islamic world, belongs to the African continent, is proud of its Asian reach and contributes to advancing human civilization.

Article 2

Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic is its official language. The principles of Sharia shall be the main source of legislation.



Article 3

The canonical principles of Egyptian Christians and Jews shall be the main source of legislation organizing their personal status, religious affairs and the selection of their spiritual leaders.



Article 4

Sovereignty belongs to the people alone who shall exercise and protect it. The people are the source of authority and they safeguard their national unity, which is based on principles of equality, justice and equal opportunity among all citizens, as prescribed in the Constitution.



Article 5

The political system shall be based on political and multiparty plurality, the peaceful transfer of power, the separation and balance of powers, the inseparability of responsibility from authority, and respect for human rights and freedoms, as prescribed in the Constitution.


Article 6

Citizenship is a right to anyone born to an Egyptian father or an Egyptian mother. Citizens have the right to legal recognition and official documentation that proves their personal information, as regulated by the law.

The law shall specify the conditions for obtaining citizenship.

PART TWO: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SOCIETY

Chapter One: Social principles

Article 7

Al-Azhar is an independent, Islamic scientific institution with exclusive autonomy over its affairs. It is the principal reference for religious sciences and Islamic affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam, spreading theology and the Arabic language in Egypt and the world.

The state shall ensure sufficient funds for Al-Azhar to achieve its objectives.


The post of Al-Azhar Grand Sheikh is independent and may not be dismissed. The method of choosing the Grand Sheikh from among members of the Council of Senior Scholars shall be determined by the law.

Article 8

Society shall be based on social solidarity.

The state shall commit to realizing social justice and the means to social solidarity, in a way that shall guarantee a dignified life to all citizens, as regulated by the law.

Article 9

The state shall commit to realizing equal opportunities for all citizens without discrimination.

Article 10

The family shall be the basis of society and its foundations are religion, morality and patriotism. The state shall ensure its cohesion, stability and the consolidation of its values.

Article 11

The state shall commit to realizing equality between men and women in all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

The state shall commit to taking all measures that guarantee appropriate representation of women in parliament, as prescribed by the law. The state also shall guarantee women the right to hold public posts and jobs in senior state administration and to be appointed to judicial bodies and entities without discrimination.

The state shall commit to protecting women against all forms of violence, and supporting women’s empowerment in order to balance family duties with work requirements. The state shall also commit to providing care and protection for mothers and children, for female breadwinners, elderly women and women most in need.

Article 12

Work is a right, duty and honor guaranteed by the state. No citizen shall be subjected to forced labor, except in accordance with the law and in order to perform a public duty for a limited period with fair compensation and without violations of the basic rights of those assigned the work.

Article 13

The state shall commit to protecting workers’ rights, building balanced work relationships between the two sides of the production process, providing means of collective negotiation, protecting workers from occupational hazards, and providing conditions for professional security, safety and health. Workers’ arbitrary dismissal is prohibited. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 14

Public posts are a right for citizens based on their qualifications, without favoritism or mediation. Public posts shall be assigned in the service of the people. The state shall provide rights and protection for civil servants who shall perform their duties in the service of the interests of the people. They shall not be dismissed without disciplinary measures, except in those cases specified by the law.

Article 15

The right to peaceful strike shall be regulated by the law.

Article 16

The state shall commit to honoring the martyrs of the nation, to offer care for those injured in the revolution, war veterans and the injured, the families of those lost in war and other equivalent events, those injured in security operations, and their spouses, children and parents. The state shall commit to providing them with job opportunities as regulated by the law.

The state shall encourage civil society organizations to contribute to achieving these goals.

Article 17

The state shall guarantee the provision of social security services. Citizens who do not have access to the social security system have the right to social security, in a way that ensures a dignified life, in cases where they are not capable of supporting themselves or their families, and also in cases of inability to work, old age or unemployment.

The state shall work on providing suitable pensions for small farmers, agricultural workers, fishermen and unorganized labor, in accordance with the law.

Social security and pensions are private funds, and shall enjoy all the protections provided to public funds. These funds and its returns are a right to its beneficiaries that shall be invested safely and moderated by an independent authority, in accordance with the law.

The state shall guarantee social security and pension funds.

Article 18

Every citizen has the right to health and integrated healthcare according to quality standards. The state shall guarantee the preservation of public health facilities that offer services to the people, and shall support them, working towards raising their quality and equitable geographical availability.

The state shall commit to allocating a proportion of its budget to health care, of at least three percent of gross national product, to be increased gradually until it is consistent with global averages.

The state shall commit to establishing a comprehensive health care system for all Egyptians that treats all ailments, and the law shall regulate the contribution of citizens through subscriptions or their exemption, according to their income level.

The denial of treatment in its various forms to any person in a case of emergency or serious threat to life is a criminal offense.

The state shall commit to improving the employment conditions of doctors, nursing staff and workers in the health sector.

All health facilities, products and materials, and tools of health-related publicity shall be under the state’s supervision, and the state shall encourage the participation of the private and civil sectors in health care provision, in accordance with the law.

Article 19

Every citizen has the right to education whose aim is building the Egyptian character, preserving national identity, establishing scientific thinking, developing talents and encouraging creativity, establishing civilized and spiritual values and the values of citizenship, tolerance and anti-discrimination. The state shall commit to upholding its goals in the education curricula and to offer education to international standards of quality.

Education is compulsory until the end of the secondary stage of education or its equivalent, and the state shall guarantee free of charge schooling at all stages in state educational institutions, in accordance with the law.

The state shall commit to allocating a proportion of its budget to education, of at least four percent of gross national product, to be increased gradually until it is consistent with global averages.

The state shall supervise education to guarantee that all public and private schools and institutions are committed to the state’s educational policies.

Article 20

The state shall commit to encouraging technical education and professional training programs and their development and expansion, according to international standards of quality, and in accordance with the needs of the labor market.

Article 21

The state shall guarantee the independence of universities and linguistic and scientific institutions, and offer university education in accordance with international standards of quality. It shall develop university education and guarantee free of charge schooling in state-owned universities and institutes, in accordance with the law.

The state shall commit to allocating a proportion of its budget to university education, of at least two percent of gross national product, to be increased gradually until it is consistent with global averages.

The state shall encourage the establishment of non-profit universities, and shall guarantee the quality of education in private and non-profit universities and their commitment to international standards of quality. It shall commit to preparing cadres of researchers and faculty members and allocating a suitable percentage of its returns to developing the research and educational process.

Article 22

Teachers, faculty members and their assistants are the foundational pillar of education. The state shall guarantee the development of their qualifications and professional capabilities, and the protection of their material and intellectual rights, in a way that guarantees the quality of education and the achievement of its goals.

Article 23

The state shall guarantee the freedom of scientific research and encourages its institutions, as a means to achieving national sovereignty and building a knowledge economy, and sponsors inventors and researchers.

The state shall commit to allocating a proportion of its budget to scientific research, of at least one percent of gross national product, to be increased gradually until it is consistent with global averages.

The state also shall guarantee the provision of the means of effective contribution for public and private sectors and the contributions of Egyptians abroad in the development of scientific research.

Article 24

The Arabic language, religion and national history in all its stages shall be core subjects in pre-university public and private education. Universities shall commit to teaching human rights, and values and ethics related to various professional and scientific specializations.

Article 25

The state shall commit to developing a comprehensive plan to eradicate illiteracy among citizens of all ages, and to developing mechanisms for its implementation with the participation of civil society organizations, according to a specific time plan.

Article 26

The establishment of civilian titles shall be prohibited.

Chapter Two: Economic

Article 27

The economic system shall aim to establish prosperity in the country through sustainable development and social justice, in a way that shall guarantee an increase in the national economy’s real growth rates and standards of living, an increase in job opportunities, a decrease in unemployment and the eradication of poverty.

The economic system shall commit to standards of transparency and governance, to supporting competition and encouraging investment and growth that is balanced in terms of geography, sector and the environment. It shall commit to ending monopolistic practices, with consideration to trade and financial balances and a fair taxation system, to regulating market mechanisms and ensuring different types of ownership, and to achieving balance between the interests of different stakeholders in a way that shall guarantee the rights of workers and consumers.

The economic system shall be socially committed to guaranteeing equal opportunities and the fair distribution of development returns, decreasing income differences and abiding to a minimum wage and pension that shall guarantee decent living standards, and a maximum wage for those paid a wage by the state, in accordance with the law.

Article 28

Economic activities related to production, services and information shall be the basic components of the national economy, and the state shall commit to protecting them and increasing their competitiveness, providing an investor-friendly environment, increasing production, encouraging exports and organizing imports.

The state shall give special attention to medium and small enterprises in all fields, and work on organizing and regulating the informal sector.

Article 29

Agriculture is a basic component of the national economy.

The state shall commit to protecting and increasing agricultural land, and criminalizing violations of agricultural land. The state shall commit to developing the countryside, raising the living standards of its inhabitants and protecting it from environmental threats, and work on developing agricultural and livestock production, and encouraging industries depending on them.

The state shall commit to providing the requirements for agricultural and animal production and buying basic agricultural crops at a suitable price providing a profit margin to the farmers, in agreement with agricultural unions, syndicates and agricultural associations. The state shall also commit to allocating a portion of reclaimed lands to small farmers and recent graduates, and protecting farmers and agricultural workers from abuse. The foregoing shall take place as regulated by the law.

Article 30

The state shall commit to protecting fish resources, protecting and support fishermen, and enabling them to practice their work without endangering the ecosystem, as regulated by the law.

Article 31

Cyberspace security is an essential component of the economic system and national security. The state shall commit to taking all necessary procedures to protect it, as regulated by the law.

Article 32

The state’s natural resources belong to the people. The state shall commit to protecting these resources, using them well, not depleting them and respecting the right of future generations to their use.

The state shall commit to working to achieve the optimum use of renewable energy sources, stimulating investment and encouraging scientific research related to renewable energy resources. The state shall encourage the manufacturing of primary resources and increase their added economic value according to economic viability.

It is not permissible to dispose of the state’s public property. The right to exploit natural resources or manage public facilities shall be granted according to the law for a period that does not exceed 30 years.

The right to exploit small quarries, mines and salt pans, or manage public facilities shall be granted according to the law, for a period that does not exceed 15 years.

The management of the state’s private property and the relevant rules and procedures shall be regulated by the law.

Article 33

The state shall protect the three types of property: public, private and cooperative.

Article 34

Public property is inviolable and may not be infringed upon. Protecting public property is a duty in accordance with the law.

Article 35

Private property shall be safeguarded and the right of inheritance guaranteed. Private property may not be placed under sequestration except in those cases specified by the law, and with a court order. Private property may not be expropriated except for the public interest and with fair compensation paid in advance in accordance with the law.

Article 36

The state shall stimulate the private sector to perform its social duty in serving the national economy and society.

Article 37

Cooperative ownership shall be safeguarded. The state shall protect cooperatives, and the law ensures their protection, support and independence.

It is prohibited to dissolve cooperative ownership or board of directors except with a court order.

Article 38

The taxation system and other public levies aim to develop state resources and achieve social justice and economic development.

Public taxes shall not be established, modified or repealed except by law. There shall be no exemptions except in those cases prescribed by the law. No one shall be required to pay additional taxes or fees, except within the limits of the law.

Imposed taxes shall have multiple sources. Taxes on individuals’ incomes shall be progressive and shall have multiple levels according to ability to pay. The taxation system shall encourage labor-intensive economic activities, and stimulate their role in economic, social and cultural development.

The state shall develop the taxation system and adopt modern systems that achieve efficiency, ease and control in tax collection.

The law shall regulate the means and tools of the collection of taxes, fees and any other soverign receipts and determine which are deposited in the state treasury.

The payment of taxes is a duty and tax evasion is a crime.

Article 39

Saving is a national duty safeguarded and encouraged by the state. The state shall guarantee savings, as regulated by the law.

Article 40

Public confiscation of money is prohibited. Private confiscation is prohibited, except with a court order.

Article 41

The state shall commit to executing a housing program that aims to achieve balance between the population growth rate and available resources, maximizing and improving investment in human resources, within the framework of achieving sustainable development.

Article 42

Workers shall have a share of the management and profits of enterprises. They shall be committed in turn to the development of production and to the implementation of plans in their production units, in accordance with the law. Preserving the tools of production is a national duty.

The representation of workers on the boards of directors of public sector units shall constitute 50 percent of the elected members of these boards. Their representation on the boards of public business sector companies shall be in accordance with the law.

The law shall regulate the representation of small farmers and small craftsmen, to be no less than 80 percent of the boards of directors of agricultural, industrial and craft cooperatives.

Article 43

The state shall commit to the protection of the Suez Canal, and its development and maintenance as an international waterway that it owns. The state shall also commit to the development of the canal sector as a distinguished economic stronghold.

Article 44

The state shall commit to protecting the Nile River and maintaining Egypt’s historical rights pertaining to it. The state shall rationalize and optimize the Nile’s benefits and not waste or pollute its water. The state shall also commit to protecting its groundwater and taking all the necessary procedures to ensure water security and encourage scientific research in this field.

The right of all citizens to enjoy the Nile River is guaranteed, and it is prohibited to violate the river’s sanctity or harm its environment and the state shall remove any encroachments on it, as regulated by the law.

Article 45

The state shall commit to protecting its seas, shores, lakes, waterways and natural reserves. It is prohibited to encroach upon, pollute or use them in a way that defies their nature. The right of all citizens to enjoy them is guaranteed. The state shall also ensure the protection and development of green spaces in urban areas and preservation of plant, animal and fish resources, and shall protect the breeds that are in danger of extinction or otherwise endangered and provide animal welfare. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 46

Every individual has the right to a healthy environment, and its protection is a national duty. The state shall commit to taking the necessary measures to preserve the environment and prevent its damage, and to using its resources rationally to ensure sustainable development, and to guarantee the rights of future generations.

Chapter Three: Cultural principles

Article 47

The state shall commit to preserving the Egyptian cultural identity, with its civilizational diversity.

Article 48

Culture is a right of every citizen, safeguarded by the state. The state shall commit to supporting culture and providing cultural material in its different forms to the different groups of people without discrimination based on financial capabilities, geographical location or other. The state shall pay special attention to remote areas and groups most in need.

The state shall encourage translation to and from Arabic.

Article 49

The state shall commit to protecting and preserving antiquities and their areas, and to restoring and maintaining them, as well as retrieving what was taken and organizing and supervising their excavation.

Presenting antiquities as gifts or exchanging them is prohibited. Encroachment on or trading in antiquities is a crime with no statute of limitations.

Article 50

Egypt’s cultural, moral and material heritage, in all its diversity and stages — ancient Egyptian, Coptic, Islamic — is a national and human treasure. The state shall commit to preserving and maintaining this cultural heritage, as well as contemporary cultural, architectural and artistic assets in their diverse forms.

An attack on any part of Egypt’s heritage is a crime punishable by the law. The state shall give special attention to preserving cultural pluralism in Egypt.

PART THREE: RIGHTS, FREEDOMS AND GENERAL DUTIES

Article 51

Dignity is the right of every human being and is  inviolable. It shall be safeguarded and respected by the state.

Article 52

Torture in all its forms is a crime with no statute of limitations.

Article 53

All citizens shall be equal before the law. They have equal rights, freedoms and public duties, and may not be discriminated against according to religion, faith, gender, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographical affiliation or on any other basis.

Discrimination and incitement of hatred is a crime punishable by the law.

The state shall commit to taking the required measures to eradicate all forms of discrimination and the law shall regulate the formation of an independent commission for this purpose.

Article 54

Personal freedom is a natural right, safeguarded and inviolable.

Except in cases of flagrante delicto, no person may be arrested, searched, detained or have any restrictions imposed on their freedom except with a court order that necessitates investigations.

All those arrested or detained shall be informed of the reasons and of their rights in writing, and allowed to immediately contact their kin and lawyer, and be presented to the investigating authority within 24 hours of the time of arrest. The interrogation shall start only in the presence of a lawyer; if they do not have a lawyer, one should be appointed.

People with special needs shall be provided with the necessary assistance, according to the procedures stipulated by the law.

Those detained, as well as others, have the right to resort to court to file a complaint. If a decision is not provided within a week, release shall be mandatory.

The law shall regulate the rules for temporary detention, its duration and causes, and specify cases of entitlement to compensation to which the state is committed whether for temporary detention or for serving a sentence that a final court ruling has revoked.

The defendant may not be tried for crimes for which they may be detained except in the presence of a lawyer, whether hired or appointed.

Article 55

Any person arrested, detained or whose freedom is restricted in any way, shall be treated in a manner that preserves human dignity, and may not be tortured, terrorized, coerced or physically or morally harmed.

Only places that are humanely and hygienically appropriate, and which are made for that purpose, may be used for detention. The state shall commit to providing the necessary assistance for people with disabilities.

The violation of any of the above is an offense punishable by law. The detainee has the right to remain silent.

Any statement proven to have been made by a detainee under any of the aforementioned forms of duress or coercion or under the threat thereof, shall be considered invalid and may not be depended on.

Article 56

Prison is a place of reform and rehabilitation. Prisons and places of detention shall be subject to judicial supervision, where anything that violates human dignity or endangers a person’s health is prohibited.

The law shall regulate the provisions of the reform and rehabilitation of convicts and facilitate a decent life for them following their release.

Article 57

The private life of citizens has its sanctity and is inviolable. Postal correspondence, wires, electronic correspondence, telephone calls and other means of communication shall have their own sanctity and privacy and may not be confiscated, exposed, or monitored except by a causal judicial warrant and for a limited period and in cases defined by the law.

The state shall safeguard the right of citizens to use public means of communication in all its forms. Suspending, halting or arbitrarly preventing citizens from their use is prohibited and regulated by the law.

Article 58

Private homes shall be inviolable. With the exception of cases of immediate danger and distress, they may not be entered, searched or monitored, except in cases defined by the law, and by a causal judicial warrant which specifies place, timing and purpose. Those in a home shall be notified of the warrant before the residence is entered or searched.

Article 59

Every person has a right to security. The state shall commit to providing security and assurance for its citizens and those residing within its territory.

Article 60

The sanctity of the human body is inviolable. Assaulting, disfiguring or exhibiting it is a crime punishable by the law. Trafficking of human organs is prohibited, and no person may be subjected to any medical or scientific experiment without their freely-given, documented consent, and in accordance with the established principles of medical science, as regulated by the law.

Article 61

Tissue and organ donation are an endowment for life and every citizen shall have the right to donate their organs during their lifetime or following death with their documented consent or will. The state shall commit to the establishment of a mechanism to regulate the rules of organ donation and transplant in accordance with the law.

Article 62

Freedom of movement, residence and migration is guaranteed.

No citizen may be deported from or prevented from returning to the country.

No citizen shall be prevented from leaving the country, nor placed under house arrest, nor prohibited residence in a specific location, except by a causal judicial warrant, and for a definite period, in those cases prescribed by the law.

Article 63

Arbitrary forced displacement of citizens in all its forms and manifestations is prohibited, and is a crime with no statute of limitations.

Article 64

The freedom of belief is absolute.

The freedom to practice religious rites and to establish places of worship for the followers of the revealed religions shall be regulated by the law.

Article 65

Freedom of thought and opinion is guaranteed.

Every individual has the right to express an opinion and to disseminate it verbally, in writing or as an illustration, or by any other means of expression or publication.

Article 66

Freedom in scientific research shall be guaranteed, and the state shall commit to supporting researchers and inventors, protecting their innovations, and working to make use of such research and inventions.

Article 67

Freedom of literary and artistic creativity shall be guaranteed, and the state shall commit to advancing literature and the arts, supporting creators and protecting their artistic output, and to providing the necessary means of encouragement to do so.

It is not permitted to raise or file lawsuits to stop or confiscate literary, intellectual or artistic work, or against its creators, except through the public prosecution. No custodial sentences may be imposed for crimes committed due to the public display of literary, intellectual or artistic work. The law shall determine the sanctions for crimes relating to inciting violence, discrimination between citizens or defamation of individuals.

The court in such cases shall oblige the offender to pay compensation to the victim of the crime, in addition to due compensation for the damage caused. The foregoing shall take place in accordance with the law.

Article 68

Information, data, statistics and official documents belong to the people, and their disclosure from various sources is a right guaranteed by the state to every citizen. The state shall commit to ensuring their transparent provision and availability to all citizens. The law shall regulate the rules for access, availability and confidentiality,  the rules for filing and archiving, and the recourse of complaint when access is refused, in addition to determining the penalty of withholding information or deliberately providing false information.

State institutions shall commit to filing and archiving official records at the National Archives after the lapse of their mandate, to protect and secure such records from loss or damage, and to restore and digitize them through all modern means and tools, in accordance with the law.

Article 69

The state shall commit to protecting intellectual property rights of all kinds in all fields, and to create a specialized body to safeguard those rights and provide legal protection, as regulated by the law.

Article 70

Freedom of the press, printing and print, visual, audio and electronic media shall be guaranteed. Egyptians of normal or legal stature, private or public, have the right to own and issue newspapers, and to establish visual, audio and digital media.

Newspapers shall be issued upon notification, as regulated by the law. The law shall regulate  procedures for the establishment and ownership of audio and visual broadcast stations and online newspapers.

Article 71

Censorship of Egyptian press and media is prohibited by any means, in addition to confiscation, suspension or closure, with the exception of specific censorship that may be imposed at times of war or public mobilization.

No custodial sentences may be imposed for crimes committed by publication or publicizing. As for crimes relating to inciting violence or discrimination between citizens or defamation of individuals, sanctions shall be determined by the law.

Article 72

The state shall commit to guaranteeing the independence of its own press and media institutions, to ensure their impartiality, and the expression of all political and intellectual views and orientations and matters of social interest, and to guaranteeing equal opportunities in addressing the general public.

Article 73

Citizens have the right to organize public meetings, processions and demonstrations, and all forms of peaceful protests, provided they do not carry weapons of any type, and upon notification as regulated by the law.

The right to private peaceful assembly is guaranteed without the need for prior notification. Security personnel shall not attend, tap or monitor such private meetings.

Article 74

Citizens have the right to form political parties, by notification as regulated by the law. They may not engage in any political activity or form political parties on the basis of religion or discrimination on the grounds of sex, origin, or sectarian or geographical considerations. They may not practice any activity that goes against the principles of democracy, is secretive, or which has a military or quasi-military nature.

Parties may not be dissolved except by a court order.

Article 75

Citizens have the right to establish associations and non-governmental organizations on a democratic basis, and these shall be deemed legal entities upon notification.

Such institutions shall operate freely, and administrative authorities may not intervene in their affairs, nor dissolve them or their board of directors or trustees without a court order.

The establishment or running of associations or non-governmental organizations that operate in a secretive, military or quasi-military manner is prohibited. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 76

The law shall guarantee the right to establish syndicates and unions on a democratic basis. Syndicates and unions shall be legal entities that practice their activities freely and contribute to raising the level of their members’ professionalism, as well as protect their rights and defending their interests.

The state shall guarantee the independence of syndicates and unions. Their boards of directors may not be dissolved without a court order and they may not be established within governmental bodies.

Article 77

The law shall regulate the establishment and administration of professional syndicates on a democratic basis, guarantee their independence, determine their resources and method for registering members and holding them accountable for their performance in their professional activities, according to professional and ethical codes of conduct.

No profession may establish more than one syndicate. No guardianship shall be imposed on it and no intervention from administrative authorities in its affairs is permitted. Its board of directors  may not be dissolved without a court order, and the syndicate shall be consulted regarding legislation related to it.

Article 78

The state shall guarantee the right to adequate, safe and healthy housing in a way that preserves human dignity and social justice.

The state shall commit to putting in place a national housing plan that takes environmental specificities into consideration and shall guarantee contributions from cooperative and citizen-initiatives in implementing the plan. The state regulates the use of state lands and provides them with basic infrastructure in the framework of comprehensive urban planning for cities and villages and a strategy for population distribution, in a way that serves the public interest, improves citizens’ living standards, and preserves the rights of future generations.

The state shall also commit to drawing up a national plan to address the problem of informal areas, including re-planning, providing basic infrastructure and services, improving quality of life and public health, and guaranteeing the required resources for execution of the plan within a specified time frame.

Article 79

Every citizen has the right to sufficient healthy food and clean water, and the state shall commit to securing nutrition resources for all citizens. The state shall guarantee food sovereignty in a sustainable manner, and the protection of agricultural biological diversity and local plants in order to preserve the rights of future generations.

Article 80

All those who have not reached the age of 18 shall be considered children. Every child has the right to a name and official identity documents, obligatory free vaccines, health and familial care, basic nutrition, safe shelter, religious upbringing, and emotional and cognitive development.

The state shall guarantee the rights of children with disabilities, their habilitation and integration into society. The state shall commit to caring for and protecting children from all forms of violence, abuse and mistreatment, including commercial and sexual exploitation.

Every child has the right to early education in a children’s center until the age of six. The employment of children who have not reached the age of completing their primary education shall be prohibited, and children may not be employed in jobs that expose them to risk.

The state shall also commit to establishing a specialized judicial system for victims and eyewitnesses who are children. Children may not be held criminally accountable or detained except in accordance with the law and for the time period specified by the law. Legal assistance shall be provided to children, and they shall be detained in appropriate places separate from adults.

The state shall seek to achieve the best interests of children in all measures taken in their regard.

Article 81

The state shall guarantee the rights of people with disabilities and people of low stature in health, economic, social, cultural, entertainment, athletic and educational matters. The state shall commit to providing them with work opportunities by allocating a percentage of jobs to them, and to  accommodating them in public facilities and their environment. The state shall guarantee their ability to exercise their political rights, and their integration with other citizens, in accordance with the principles of justice, equality and equal opportunity.

Article 82

The state shall guarantee the care of children and youth and it shall work on uncovering their talents, supporting the development of their cultural, scientific, psychological, physical and creative abilities, encouraging them to participate in group and volunteer work and enabling them to participate in public life.

Article 83

The state shall commit to guaranteeing the rights of the elderly in matters of health, economy, society, culture and entertainment, providing them with adequate pensions to enable them to lead dignified lives and to participate in public life. The state shall take the needs of the elderly into consideration while planning public utilities, and also encourage civil society organizations to participate in the care of the elderly. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 84

Practicing sports is a right for everyone. State institutions and society shall be responsible for discovering those who are athletically gifted and sponsoring them. The state shall take all necessary procedures to encourage the practice of sport. The law shall regulate the affairs of sports and of state sports bodies in accordance with international standards, and specify the mechanism for settling sports disputes.

Article 85

Every individual has the right to address the general authorities through a signed piece of writing. These addresses should not be issued in the name of groups, except for those deemed legal entities.

Article 86

Maintaining national security is a duty, and citizens’ commitment to it is a national responsibility, guaranteed by the law. Defense of the nation and  the homeland are an honor and sacred duty, and military recruitment is compulsory, in accordance with the law.

Article 87

The participation of citizens in public life is a national duty. Every citizen has the right to vote, run for office and express their opinion in referenda. The law shall regulate these rights. Performance of these duties may be exempted in cases specified by the law.

The state shall include the name of every citizen in the voter database without request from the citizen, once voting requirements have been met. The state shall also commit to revising this database periodically in accordance with the law.

The state shall guarantee the integrity and impartiality of the procedures for referenda and elections, and prohibit the use of public money, government offices, public facilities, houses of worship, business institutions and non-governmental organizations for political purposes or electoral propaganda.

Article 88

The state shall commit to safeguarding the interests of Egyptians living abroad, to protecting them, guaranteeing their rights and freedoms, and enabling them to perform their public duties toward state and society and to contribute to the development of the nation.

The law shall regulate their participation in elections and referenda in a way that is consistent with their circumstances, without being bound by the provisions on voting, counting of ballots and announcement of results laid out in the Constitution. Safeguards shall ensure the integrity and impartiality of the election and referenda process.

Article 89

All forms of slavery, oppression and forced exploitation, sex trade, and other forms of trafficking in human beings shall be prohibited, as crimes punishable by the law.

Article 90

The state shall commit to encouraging systems of charity endowment to establish and sponsor educational, cultural, health and social institutions among others. It shall also ensure the independence of charities and ensure they are run according to the conditions of those who created the endowment, in accordance with the law.

Article 91

The state shall provide asylum to any foreigner persecuted for defending the interests of peoples, human rights, peace or justice.

The extradition of political refugees is prohibited, in accordance with the law.

Article 92

The freedoms and rights of citizens may not be disrupted or detracted.

No law regulating the exercise of rights and freedoms shall constrain their essence and origins.

Article 93

The state shall commit to the agreements, covenants and international human rights conventions ratified by Egypt, and they shall gain legal power after publication in accordance with the stipulated conditions.

PART FOUR: THE RULE OF LAW

Article 94

The sovereignty of the law shall be the basis of governance in the state.

The state shall be subject to the law, and the independence, immunity and impartiality of the judiciary shall be basic safeguards for the protection of rights and freedoms.

Article 95

No one other than the person sentenced shall serve a penalty. Crimes and penalties may only be based upon the law, and no penalties may be imposed except by a judicial ruling.

Penalties may only be imposed for acts committed subsequent to the effective date of the law.

Article 96

The accused is innocent until proven guilty in a fair legal trial that shall guarantee the right of defense.

The law shall regulate the appeal of criminal sentences. The state shall provide protection for victims, witnesses, defendants and those pressing charges, in accordance with the law.

Article 97

The right to litigation is guaranteed for all. The state shall commit to providing litigation and to working on the prompt settlement of cases.

Granting immunity from judicial oversight to any administrative act or decision is prohibited. Individuals may only be tried before their natural judge and extraordinary courts shall be prohibited.

Article 98

The right of defense, in person or by proxy is guaranteed. The independence of the legal profession and the protection of its rights shall serve as a guarantee for a fair defense. The law shall guarantee those who are financially incapable means of recourse to the judiciary and the defense of their rights.

Article 99

Attacks on personal freedoms or the sanctity of the lives of citizens, or other rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution and the law, shall be crimes with no statute of limitations for both civil and criminal cases. The victim is entitled to file a criminal lawsuit directly.

The state shall guarantee fair compensation for the victims, and the National Council for Human Rights has the right to inform the public prosecution of such violations, and to intervene in the case on the side of the victim if requested, as prescribed by the law.

Article 100

Verdicts shall be issued and executed in the name of the people. The state shall guarantee the means by which to implement them as regulated by the law.

Refraining from or hindering the implementation of these verdicts by public employees is a crime punishable by law, and in such a case the party who attained a verdict to their benefit has the right to file a criminal lawsuit to the competent court. The prosecution shall, based on a request from the plaintiff, bring the case against the public servant responsible for refraining or hindering the implementation of the verdict.

PART FIVE: THE RULING SYSTEM  

Chapter One: Legislative Authority (House of Representatives)

Article 101

The House of Representatives shall hold legislative power to approve general policies of the state, the general plan for economic and social development, and the state budget. It shall exercise oversight over the work of the executive authority. The foregoing shall take place in the manner prescribed in the Constitution.

Article 102

The House of Representatives shall have at least 450 members, elected by direct, secret public ballot.

Candidates for elections to the House must be Egyptian citizens with civil and political rights, hold a certificate of basic education, and be at least 25 years of age at the time of candidacy.

Other requirements for nomination, the electoral system, the provisions for elections and the division of constituencies shall be defined by the law, taking into account the fair representation of constituencies and governorates and the equitable representation of voters. The electoral system may follow an individual candidate or a party-list system, or a combination of both in any proportion.

The president of the republic has the right to appoint no more than five percent of the members of the House of Representatives, and the method of their nomination shall be defined by the law.

Article 103

Members of the House of Representatives shall be fully devoted to office, with any other job or post held open for their return, in accordance with the law.

Article 104

Prior to the start of his or her tenure, a member shall take the following oath before the House of Representatives: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully safeguard the interests of the people, and preserve the independence and territorial integrity of the nation.”

Article 105

Members shall receive remuneration determined by the law. If there is any modification of the remuneration, it shall be implemented in the legislative term following that in which the modification was adopted.

Article 106

The term of membership is five calendar years, commencing from the first session of the House of Representatives.

Elections for a new House of Representatives shall be held during the 60 days preceding the end of the term of the current House of Representatives.

Article 107

The Court of Cassation shall have jurisdiction over the validity of membership in the House of Representatives. Challenges shall be submitted to the court within a period not exceeding 30 days of the announcement of the final election results, and a verdict shall be passed within 60 days of receipt.

Where a membership is deemed invalid, it shall become void from the date the verdict is reported to the House of Representatives.

Article 108

If the seat of a member becomes vacant at least six months before the end of their term, the vacant position must be filled in accordance with the law, within 60 days of the date the vacancy is first reported.

Article 109

Throughout his or her tenure, no member of the House of Representatives may, in person or through an intermediary, purchase or rent any state property, or that of legal entities or public sector companies or the public works sector, lease or sell to or barter with the state any part of their own property, or conclude a contract with the state as vendor, supplier or contractor. Any such transaction shall be considered invalid.

Members shall supply financial disclosures at the start and end of their tenure, as well as at the end of each year.

If, in relation to their membership in the House of Representatives, members receive cash or in-kind gifts, these shall belong to the state treasury.

The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 110

Membership of the House of Representatives may only be revoked if a member has lost trust, status or any of the membership requirements that were prerequisites for their election, or if they have violated the duties of their membership.

Decisions on revoking membership shall be issued by a majority of two-thirds of the House of Representatives.

Article 111

The House of Representatives shall accept the resignation of its members, which must be submitted in writing, and not after the House has begun measures to revoke the membership of the resigning member.

Article 112

Members of the House of Representatives shall not be held accountable for any opinions pertaining to their tasks in the House of Representatives or its committees.

Article 113

It is prohibited, except in cases of flagrante delicto, to take criminal action against members of the House of Representatives without prior permission from the House. If not in session, permission must be granted by the House of Representatives Bureau, and the House of Representatives notified at the as soon as it is in session of any measures taken.

In all cases, if a request for permission to take legal action against a member of the House does not receive a response within 30 days, the permission is to be considered granted.

Article 114

The seat of the House of Representatives is in Cairo.

In exceptional circumstances, the House of Representatives may hold meetings elsewhere, at the request of the president of the republic or one-third of the members of the House.

Any meetings that do not conform to this shall be deemed illegitimate and the resolutions passed therein considered void.

Article 115

The president of the republic shall convene the House of Representatives for its ordinary annual session before the first Thursday of October. If not convened, the House is prescribed by the Constitution to meet on the said day.

Ordinary sessions shall continue for at least nine months. The president of the republic shall bring each session to a close with the approval of the House, only after the state’s general budget has been adopted.

Article 116

The House of Representatives may be called to an extraordinary meeting by the president of the republic, or upon a request signed by at least 10 members of the House of Representatives to consider an urgent matter.

Article 117

The House of Representatives shall elect a speaker and two deputy speakers for the full legislative term during the first meeting of its annual session. If any of these seats becomes vacant, the House of Representatives shall elect a replacement. The internal bylaws of the House determine election rules and procedures. If either the speaker or deputy speakers violate the commitments of their positions, one-third of the House may request that they are relieved of their post, and the decision shall be issued by a majority of two-thirds of the House of Representatives.

In all cases, the speaker or either deputy speakers shall not be elected for more than two consecutive legislative terms.

Article 118

The House of Representatives shall lay down its own bylaws regulating its work, the manner of practicing its functions, and maintaining order within it. These bylaws shall be issued by a law.

Article 119

It is the responsibility of the speaker to maintain order in the House of Representatives.

Article 120

The sessions of the House of Representatives shall be public.

However, closed sessions may be held at the request of the president of the republic, the prime minister, the speaker of the house, or at least 20 of its members. The House of Representatives shall decide, by a majority of members, whether the debate under discussion shall take place in a public or closed session.

Article 121

The meetings of the House of Representatives and the resolutions passed shall not be considered valid unless attended by the majority of its members.

In cases other than those stipulating a special majority, resolutions shall be adopted based on an absolute majority of the members present. In the case of a tied vote, the matter under deliberation shall be considered rejected.

Laws shall approved by an absolute majority of the members present, and with no less than one-third of the members of the House.

Laws that are complementary to the Constitution shall be issued with the approval of two-thirds of the members of the House of Representatives. This includes any bills regulating presidential, parliamentary or local elections, political parties, the judiciary or judicial bodies and bills regulating the rights and freedoms stipulated in the Constitution.

Article 122

The president of the republic, the cabinet and all members of the House of Representatives shall have the right to propose laws.

Every bill presented by the government, or a tenth of the members of the House of Representatives, shall be referred to the relevant committee in the House of Representatives to inspect and submit a report to the House. The committee may enlist expert advice if required.

Bills presented by a member of the House of Representatives shall not be referred to the committee before being endorsed by the Proposals Committee and approved for consideration by the House of Representatives. If the Proposals Committee does not endorse a proposed law for consideration, reasons for rejection must be presented.

A bill proposed by a member but rejected by the House of Representatives may not be presented again during the same term session.

Article 123

The president of the republic has the right to issue or object to laws. If the president objects to a bill endorsed by the House of Representatives, it must be referred back to the House within 30 days. If the bill is not referred back within this period, or if it is approved again by a majority of two-thirds of the members, it shall be considered a law and shall be disseminated as such.

Article 124

The general budget of the state includes all revenue and expenditure without exception. A draft budget shall be submitted to the House of Representatives at least 90 days before the beginning of the fiscal year. It will not be considered in effect unless approved by the House of Representatives. It shall be put to a vote on a chapter-by-chapter basis.

The House of Representatives may modify expenditures in the draft budget, except those listed to honor a specific commitment by the state.

Should the modification result in an increase in total expenditure, the House of Representatives shall agree with the government on the means to secure additional revenue to restore the balance between revenue and expenditure. The budget shall be issued in a law, which may include amendments to any existing law, to the extent necessary to achieve this balance.

In all cases, the budget law may not contain any text that would incur further burdens on citizens. Budget details for the fiscal year, method of budget preparation, provisions for the budgets of institutions, public bodies and their accounts, shall be defined by the law.

The approval of the House of Representatives is necessary for the transfer of any funds from one section of the budget to another, as well as for any expenditure not included therein or in excess of its estimates. The approval shall be issued in a law.

Article 125

The final account of the state budget shall be submitted to the House of Representatives within a period not exceeding six months from the end of the fiscal year. The annual report of the Central Auditing Organization and its observations on the final account must be included therein.

The final account of the state budget shall be put to a vote on a chapter-by-chapter basis and shall be issued by a law.

The House of Representatives has the right to request from the Central Auditing Organization any additional data or reports.

Article 126

The basic rules for the collection of public funds and the procedure for their disbursement shall be regulated by the law.

Article 127

The executive authority may not contract a loan, obtain funds, or commit itself to a project not specified in the state budget entailing expenditure from the state treasury for a subsequent period, except with the approval of the House of Representatives.

Article 128  

The rules governing salaries, pensions, indemnities, subsides and bonuses taken from the state treasury shall be regulated by the law. The law shall also regulate the cases for exemption from such rules and the authorities in charge of their application.

Article 129

Every member of the House of Representatives may submit a question concerning matters within their jurisdiction to the prime minister, one of the prime minister’s deputies, or to any minister or their deputies. This must be responded to within the same term.

The member may at any point retract their question, but may not modify it into an interpellation during the same session.

Article 130

Every member of the House of Representatives may address interpellations to the prime minister, the prime minister’s deputies, or to ministers or their deputies concerning matters within their respective jurisdiction.

Debate on an interpellation shall take place within a minimum of seven days and a maximum of 60 days after its submission, except in urgent cases, as decided by the House of Representatives and with the government’s consent.

Article 131

The House of Representatives may decide to withdraw confidence from the prime minister, a deputy of the prime minister, or any other minister or their deputies.

A motion of no confidence may be submitted only after an interpellation, upon proposal by one-tenth of the members of the House of Representatives. The House shall issue its decision after debating the interpellation. Withdrawal of confidence requires the approval of a majority the members of the House of Representatives.

In all cases, a motion of no confidence may not be passed in connection with an issue that has already been settled by the House of Representatives during the same term.

If the House of Representatives decides to withdraw confidence from the prime minister, a deputy of the prime minister, or a minister or their deputies, and the government announces its solidarity with the figure in question before the vote, then the government is obliged to tender its resignation. If the no confidence resolution concerns a member of the government, the member is obliged to resign from office.

Article 132

At least 20 members of the House of Representatives may request the discussion of a public issue in order to clarify governmental policy in relation to it.

Article 133

Every member of the House of Representatives may propose public issues for discussion to the prime minister, the prime minister’s deputies, ministers or their deputies.

Article 134

Every member of the House of Representatives may submit a request for information or urgent briefing in matters of urgent public importance from the prime minister, the prime minister’s deputies, ministers, or their deputies.

Article 135

The House of Representatives may form a special committee, or entrust one of its existing committees, to pursue public issues, examine the activities of any administrative department, institution or public enterprise, for the purpose of fact-finding regarding a particular subject. They shall inform the House of Representatives of the financial, administrative or economic status of the body in question, and of any investigations into previous activities. The House of Representatives shall decide on the appropriate course of action.

In order to carry out its mission, such a committee may collect any evidence it deems necessary and summon individuals for interviews. All executive and administrative bodies shall respond to demands from the committee and place at its disposal any documents and evidence required.

In all cases, every member of the House of Representatives has the right to obtain any data or information from the executive authority related to their work in the House.

Article 136

The prime minister, the prime minister’s deputies, ministers, or their deputies may attend the sessions of the House of Representatives or its committees. Their attendance is mandatory upon the request of the House of Representatives. They may be assisted by senior officials of their choice.

They shall be listened to each time they request to speak, and they shall respond to the issues under discussion but may not vote.

Article 137

The president of the republic may not dissolve the House of Representatives unless it is necessary, with a causal decree and following a public referendum. The House of Representatives may not be dissolved for the same reason that led to the dissolution of the House of Representatives immediately preceding it.

The president must issue a decision to suspend the House’s sessions and hold a referendum within 20 days. If a majority vote for the dissolution, the president shall issue the dissolution decision and call for new elections to take place within a maximum of 30 days of the date of the dissolution. The new House of Representatives shall convene within 10 days following the announcement of the referendum results.

Article 138

Citizens may submit written suggestions to the House of Representatives regarding public issues, and they may also submit complaints to the House to be referred to the relevant ministers. The ministers shall present any clarifications needed if the House requires this, and the citizen who made the submission informed of the results.

Chapter Two: Executive authority

Section One: The president of the republic

Article 139

The president of republic is the head of state and chief of the executive authority. The president safeguards the interests of the people, preserves the independence, territorial integrity and safety of the nation, and adheres to the provisions of the Constitution and proceeds with the responsibilities of the presidency in the manner prescribed in the Constitution.

Article 140

The president of the republic shall be elected for a period of four calendar years, commencing on the day the term of the previous president ends. The president may be reelected only once.

The process of the presidential election begins at least 120 days before the end of the presidential term. The result is to be announced at least 30 days before the end of the term.

The president of the republic may not hold any partisan position for the duration of the presidency.

Article 141

A presidential candidate must be an Egyptian citizen born to Egyptian parents, who has not held any other citizenship, and whose spouse and parents have not held any other citizenship. The candidate must enjoy their civil and political rights, have fulfilled military service or been legally exempted from it and at the time of nomination must be at least 40 years of age. The law shall regulate other conditions of candidacy.

Article 142

A prerequisite for nomination to the presidency is a recommendation by at least 20 elected members of the House of Representatives, or endorsements from at least 25,000 citizens who are eligible to vote, from at least 15 governorates, with a minimum of 1,000 endorsements from each governorate.

No one shall be allowed to endorse more than one candidate, as regulated by the law.

Article 143

The president of the republic is elected by direct secret ballot, by an absolute majority of valid votes. The procedures for electing the president of the republic shall be regulated by the law.

Article 144

Before assuming the functions of the presidential office, the president of the republic shall take the following oath before the House of Representatives: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully safeguard the interests of the people, and preserve the independence and territorial integrity of the nation.”

In the absence of the House of Representatives, the oath is to be taken before the Supreme Constitutional Court.

Article 145

The salary of the president of the republic is stipulated by law. The president may not receive any other salary or remuneration, and the salary may not be modified throughout the term during which it was approved.

The president may not engage throughout the presidential term, in an independent profession or commercial, financial or industrial business, whether in person or through an intermediary. Nor may the president buy or rent state property, or that of legal entities or public sector companies or the public works sector, nor lease or sell to or barter with the state any part of their own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendor, supplier or contractor. Any such transaction shall be considered invalid.

The president must submit to the House of Representatives a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it, and at the end of each year, and it shall be published in the Official Gazette.

The president shall not decorate himself with any medals or badges.

If, in relation to the presidential post, the president receives, in person or through an intermediary, cash or in-kind gifts, these shall belong to the state treasury.

Article 146

The president of the republic shall assign the prime minister, who shall be mandated by the president the task of forming the government and presenting its program to the House of Representatives. If the House of Representatives does not grant the government confidence by a majority of votes within 30 days, the president shall appoint a new prime minister based on the nomination of the party or coalition that has a majority in the House of Representatives. If this government does not gain the confidence of a majority of the House of Representatives with 30 days, the House of Representatives shall be considered dissolved and the president shall call for elections for a new House within 60 days of the date the dissolution was announced.

In all cases, the sum total of the selection periods mentioned in this article shall not exceed 60 days.

In the event of the dissolution of the House of Representatives, the prime minister shall present the government and its plan to the new House of Representatives in its first session.

In the event that the government is chosen from the party or coalition that holds a majority of seats in the House of Representatives, the president of the republic shall choose the ministers of defense, interior, foreign affairs and justice, in conjunction with the prime minister.

Article 147

The president of the republic may relieve the government of its duties if a majority of the members of the House of Representatives approve. The president may perform a cabinet change in conjunction with the prime minister and the approval of the absolute majority of the members of the House of Representatives present, provided that they are no less than one-third of the members.

Article 148

The president of the republic may delegate some presidential authorities to the prime minister, the prime minister’s deputies, ministers or governors. They may not delegate others. The law shall regulate this process.

Article 149

The president of the republic may call for governmental meetings to discuss important matters and shall preside over such meetings.

Article 150

The president of the republic, in conjunction with the cabinet, shall lay out the general policy of the state and oversee its implementation, in the manner prescribed in the Constitution.

The president of the republic may make a statement on the general policy of the state before the House of Representatives at its annual inaugural session.

The president may also issue statements or address any other messages to the House.

Article 151

The president of the republic shall represent the state in its foreign relations, make treaties and ratify them following the approval of the House of Representatives. They shall have the force of law upon being published in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Voters shall be called for a referendum on treaties of reconciliation and alliances and matters of sovereignty; they may only be ratified upon the announcement of referendum results granting approval.

In all cases, no treaty may be concluded that violates the provisions of the Constitution or results in a concession of any part of the territory of the state.

Article 152

The president of the republic shall be the supreme commander of the Armed Forces. The president may not declare war, or send the Armed Forces on a combat mission outside state territory, except after consultation with the National Defense Council and the approval of the House of Representatives by a two-thirds majority of its members.

If the House of Representatives is not in session, the president shall take the opinion of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces and the approval of both the cabinet and the National Defense Council.

Article 153

The president of the republic shall appoint civil and military personnel and diplomatic representatives and dismiss them, and shall ratify the appointment of political representatives in foreign countries and organizations, in accordance with the law.

Article 154

The president of the republic may declare, after consultation with the cabinet, a state of emergency in the manner regulated by the law. Such a proclamation must be submitted to the House of Representatives for consultation within seven days.

If the declaration takes place when the House of Representatives is not in session, an emergency session must be called immediately.

In all cases, the declaration of a state of emergency must be approved by a majority of the members of the House of Representatives. The declaration shall be for a specified period not exceeding three months, and that may only be extended by another equal period after the approval of the House of Representatives by a two-thirds majority. If the House of Representatives is not in session, the matter is taken to the cabinet for approval, to be presented to the House of Representatives in its first session.

The House of Representatives may not be dissolved while a state of emergency is in force.

Article 155

The president of the republic may issue a pardon or mitigate sentences following consultation with the cabinet. A general amnesty may only be granted with a law, ratified with the approval of a majority of the House of Representatives

Article 156

If, while the House of Representatives is not in session, something occurs that necessitates taking procedures that cannot be delayed, the president of the republic convenes an urgent session to review the matter.

In the absence of the House of Representatives, the president of the republic may issue laws, to be presented, discussed and approved within 15 days of the convening of the new House of Representatives. In the event that these laws are not presented to the House of Representatives and discussed, or they are presented and do not gain the House’s approval, they shall be retroactively revoked without the need to issue a decision to that effect, unless the House of Representatives decides to approve their validity for the previous period, or settle their resulting effects.

Article 157

The president of the republic may call voters to a referendum on issues that relate to the higher interests of the state without violating the provisions of the Constitution. If the call for the referendum includes more than one matter, these shall be voted on separately.

Article 158

The president of the republic may submit a resignation to the House or Representatives. If the House of Representatives is not in session, it must be submitted to the General Assembly of the Supreme Constitutional Court.

Article 159

Accusing the president of violating the provisions of the Constitution, of grand treason, or of any other felony must occur through a request signed by no less than a majority of the members of the House of Representatives. A decision to indict the president may occur only with a two-thirds majority, and following an investigation conducted by the prosecutor general. Should the prosecutor general be unable to do so, one of their deputies shall play this role. As soon as a decision to impeach is issued, the president of the republic shall cease all work, and this is considered a temporary measure that prevents the president from attending to presidential responsibilities until a verdict  is issued in the case.

In such a case, the president of the republic shall be tried before a special court headed by the president of the Supreme Judicial Council, along with the most senior deputy of the president of the Supreme Constitutional Court, and the most senior deputy of the president of the State Council and the two most senior figures of the Court of Appeal. The prosecutor general handles the prosecution of the case. If any of the foregoing figures are unable to do so, the role shall be discharged by the next in seniority. The rulings of the court shall be final and not subject to appeal.

The law shall regulate the procedures of the investigations and the trial. In the event of conviction, the president shall be relieved of the post, without prejudice to the other penalties.

Article 160

If a temporary hindrance prevents the president from fulfilling the presidential functions, the prime minister shall act in the president’s place.

If the position of the president of the republic becomes vacant due to resignation, death or permanent inability to work, the House of Representatives shall announce the vacancy of the office. If the vacancy has other causes, the announcement of the vacancy shall be made with no less than a two-thirds majority.

The House of Representatives shall notify the National Elections Commission, and the speaker of the House of Representatives shall temporarily assume presidential powers.

In the absence of the House of Representatives, the General Assembly of the Supreme Constitutional Court and its president shall replace the House of Representatives and its speaker.

In all cases, the new president should be elected within 90 days of the date of the vacancy of the post. The presidential term in this case shall start from the date of the announcement of the elections results.

The temporary president of the republic may not run for presidential office, demand amendments to the Constitution, dissolve the House of Representatives or dismiss the government.

Article 161

The House of Representatives may propose to withdraw  confidence from the president of the republic and hold early presidential elections based on a causative request signed by no less than a majority of the House of Representatives and approved by two-thirds of its members. This request may not be made for the same reason more than once during the same presidential term.

As soon as a proposal to withdraw confidence is approved, the question of withdrawing confidence from the president and holding early elections shall be presented in a general referendum, announced by the prime minister. If the majority approves the withdrawal of confidence, the president shall be relieved from the post and the position considered vacant. Early elections shall be conducted within 60 days of the date of the announcement of the referendum results.

In the event that the result of the referendum is rejection, the House of Representatives shall be considered dissolved and the president of the republic shall call for the election of a new House of Representatives within 30 days of the date of the dissolution.

Article 162

If presidential office becomes vacant at the same time as a referendum or the election of the House of Representatives, the presidential elections shall be given precedence, and the House continue until the election of the president.

Section Two: The government

Article 163

The government shall be the supreme executive and administrative body of the state, and comprise the prime minister, the prime minister’s deputies, ministers and their deputies. The prime minister shall head the government, oversee its work and direct it in the performance of its responsibilities.

Article 164

A person appointed to the position of prime minister must be an Egyptian citizen born to Egyptian parents, who has not held any other citizenship, and whose spouse and parents have not held any other citizenship, and must enjoy their civil and political rights, have fulfilled military service or been legally exempted from it and at the time of appointment must be at least 30 years of age.

A person appointed as a member of the government must be an Egyptian citizen, enjoy their civil and political rights and have fulfilled military service or have been legally exempted from it, and at the time of appointment must be at least 35 years of age.

It is prohibited to be a member of the government and the House of Representatives simultaneously. If a member of the House of Representatives is appointed to the government, their seat shall be considered vacant as of the day of their appointment to the government.

Article 165

Prior to assuming their duties, the prime minister and members of the government shall take the following oath before the president of the republic: “I swear by Almighty God to loyally uphold the republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully safeguard the interests of the people, and preserve the independence and territorial integrity of the nation.”

Article 166

The salary of the prime minister and members of the government shall be stipulated by law. None of them shall receive any other salary or remuneration. They shall be prohibited from engaging during the term of their posts, in an independent profession or a commercial, financial or industrial business, whether in person or through an intermediary; nor are they allowed to buy or rent state property, nor lease or sell to or barter with the state any part of their own property, nor conclude a contract with the state as vendor, supplier or contractor. Any such transaction shall be considered invalid.

The prime minister and members of the government must submit a financial disclosure upon taking office, upon leaving it, and at the end of each year, and it shall be published in the Official Gazette.

If any of them should receive, in person or through an intermediary, cash or in-kind gifts by virtue of their posts, these shall belong to the state treasury.

Article 167

The government shall exercise the following functions in particular:

1. Collaboration with the president of the republic in the development of the general policy of the state, and overseeing its implementation;

2. Maintaining the security of the nation and the protection of citizens’ rights and interests of the state;

3. Guiding the work of ministries, agencies, affiliated public bodies, and maintaining coordination and follow-up with them;

4. Preparation of bills and decisions;

5. Issuance of administrative decisions in accordance with the  law, and follow-up their implementation;

6. Preparation of the draft general plan for the state;

7. Preparation of a draft of the state budget;

8. Contracting and granting loans according to the provisions of the Constitution; and

9. The implementation of laws.

Article 168

The minister creates the policy of the ministry in coordination with the concerned authorities, and supervises its implementation, and guides and monitors this policy, within the framework of the general policy of the state.

The higher administrative posts of each ministry include a permanent deputy to ensure institutional stability and to raise the level of efficiency in the implementation of its policy.

Article 169

Members of the government may deliver a statement before the House of Representatives, or one of its committees, on matters within their jurisdiction. The House of Representatives or relevant committee may discuss the statement and give its opinion.

Article 170

The prime minister shall issue necessary regulations for the enforcement of laws, in such a manner that does not entail any disruption, modification, or exemption from their enforcement, and shall have the right to vest others with authority to issue them, except if the law designates who should issue the regulations necessary for their enforcement.

Article 171

The prime minister shall issue the regulations necessary for the creation and organization of public services and facilities upon the approval of the cabinet.

Article 172

The prime minister shall issue disciplinary regulations upon the approval of the cabinet.

Article 173

The prime minister and members of the government shall be subject to the general rules regulating investigation and trial procedures, should they commit crimes while performing their functions or because of them. Their leaving office does not preclude the start or continuation of a lawsuit.

In cases of high treason against any member of the government, the provisions stipulated in Article 159 of the Constitution shall apply.

Article 174

For the prime minister to resign, a letter of resignation shall be presented to the president of the republic. For one of the cabinet members to resign, a letter shall be presented to the prime minister.

Section Three: Local Administration

Article 175

The state shall be divided into administrative units that are legal entities. These  include governorates, cities and villages. Other administrative units that are legal entities may be established if required by the public interest. While establishing or abolishing local units or modifying their boundaries, economic and social conditions shall be taken into consideration. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.  

Article 176

The state shall guarantee administrative, financial and economic decentralization and the law shall regulate the means to enable administrative units to provide, improve and effectively manage local services and facilities.

A timeframe defines the transfer of power and budgets to local administrative units.

Article 177

The state shall guarantee the provision to the local units of their requirements in terms of informational, technical, administrative and financial assistance, shall ensure equitable distribution of facilities, services and resources, and shall work to bring development levels and living standards in these units to a common standard and shall achieve social justice between these units. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 178

Local units shall have independent budgets. In addition to resources allocated by the state, the resources of local units shall include additional taxes and fees of a local nature. The unit shall follow the same rules and procedures in the collection of public funds as those followed by the state. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 179

The law shall regulate the manner by which governors and heads of other local administrative units are selected, and define their jurisdiction.

Article 180

Every local unit shall elect a local council by direct, secret ballot for a term of four years. A candidate must be at least 21 years of age. The law shall regulate other conditions for candidacy and election procedures, provided that a quarter of seats are allocated to youth below 35 years of age, a quarter allocated to women, and farmers and workers shall not represent less than 50 percent of the total number of seats, and that these figures shall include proper representation of Copts and people with disabilities.

The local council shall be concerned with implementing the development plan and overseeing the different activities, and exercising controls over the executive authority such as through suggestions, directing questions, briefing requests, investigations, interpellations and others, as well as withdrawing confidence from heads of the local units, as regulated by the law.

The law shall regulate the local units’ other specializations, their financial resources, shall grant their members guarantees and the units’ independence.

Article 181

Local council decisions issued within the council’s jurisdiction shall be final and not subject to interference from the executive authority, except to prevent the council from overstepping the limits of its jurisdiction, or causing damage to the public interest or the interests of other local councils.

Any dispute over the jurisdiction of local councils in villages, centers or towns shall be dealt with by the governorate’s local council.

Any dispute over the jurisdiction of a governorate’s local council shall be dealt with as a matter of urgency by the General Assembly of the Legislation Department of the State Council. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 182

Every local council shall be in charge of its own budget and final accounts, in the manner regulated by the law.

Article 183

Local councils may not be dissolved as part of a comprehensive administrative procedure. The law shall regulate the dissolution or reelection of any local council.

Chapter Three: Judiciary

Section One: General provisions

Article 184

The judiciary is independent. It is vested in the courts of justice of different types and levels, which shall issue their judgments in accordance with the law. Its powers shall be defined by the law. Interference in the affairs of the judiciary is a crime with no statute of limitations.

Article 185

Every judicial body shall administer its own affairs. Each shall have an independent budget whose items are discussed by the House of Representatives, and which shall be listed if approved in the state budget as a single figure.

Judicial bodies shall be consulted regarding bills governing their affairs, as regulated by the law.

Article 186

Judges shall be independent, may not be dismissed, and shall be subject to no authority other than the law, and equal in rights and duties.

The conditions and procedures for their appointment, secondment and retirement, shall be defined by the law. Disciplinary accountability shall be regulated by the law.

They may not be delegated, fully or partially, except to bodies and positions defined by the law, all in a manner that preserves the independence and impartiality of the judiciary, and prevents conflicts of interest. The rights, duties and guarantees granted to them shall be specified by the law.

Article 187

Court sessions shall be public, unless, in consideration of public order or morals, the court deems them confidential. In all cases, the verdict shall be given in an open session.

Section Two: The judiciary and the public prosecution

Article 188

The judiciary shall adjudicate in all disputes and crimes except for matters over which another judicial body is competent. The judiciary alone shall settle any disputes relating to the affairs of its members. Its affairs shall be regulated by a supreme council whose formation and jurisdiction shall be regulated by the law.

Article 189

The public prosecution is an integral part of the judiciary, required to investigate, press charges and prosecute in all criminal cases except that which is exempted by law. Other competencies of the public prosecution shall be defined by the law.

Public prosecution shall be conducted by a prosecutor general selected by the Supreme Judicial Council from among the deputies of the president of the Court of Cassation, the presidents of the Court of Appeals and assistant prosecutor generals. The appointment is issued by the president of the republic for a period of four years, or for the period remaining until retirement age, whichever comes first, and only once during a judge’s career.

Section Three: The State Council

Article 190

The State Council shall be an independent judicial body that is exclusively competent to adjudicate in administrative disputes and disputes pertaining to the implementation of its decisions. It shall also be competent to adjudicate disciplinary proceedings and appeals, and issue opinions on the legal issues of bodies to be determined by the law. It shall review and draft bills and resolutions that are legislative in nature, and review draft contracts to which the state or a public body is a party. Other competencies shall be determined by the law.   

Chapter Four: The Supreme Constitutional Court

Article 191

The Supreme Constitutional Court is an independent self-contained judicial body, a stand-alone. It is based in Cairo, and in case of necessity may convene in any other place in the country, with the approval of the General Assembly of the court. The Supreme Constitutional Court shall have an independent budget whose items are discussed by the House of Representatives, and which shall be listed if approved in the state budget as a single figure. The General Assembly of the court shall manage the court’s affairs, and shall be consulted regarding bills related to the affairs of the court.

Article 192

The Supreme Constitutional Court shall be exclusively competent to rule on the constitutionality of laws and regulations, interpret legislative texts, and to settle disputes relating to the affairs of its members, conflicts of jurisdiction between judicial bodies and entities that have a judicial mandate, disputes regarding the implementation of two final contradictory rulings, one issued by any judicial body or a body with judicial competency and the other issued by another entity, and disputes related to the implementation of its rulings and decisions. The law shall determine the other competencies of the court, and regulate the procedures to be followed before the court.

Article 193

The Supreme Constitutional Court is made up of a president and a sufficient number of deputies. The Commissioners Authority of the court is made up of a president, and a sufficient number of deputy presidents, advisers and assistant advisers. The General Assembly shall choose the president of the court from among the three most senior deputy presidents, as well as the deputy presidents, and members of the commissioners. Appointments take place by a decree from the president of the republic. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.  

Article 194

The president and deputies of the Supreme Constitutional Court, the president and members of the court’s Commissioners Authority shall be independent and may not be dismissed. There shall be no authority over their work but the law. The law shall specify the conditions required of them, and the court shall manage their disciplinary accountability, in the manner prescribed by the law. They shall enjoy all the rights, duties and guarantees granted to other members of the judiciary.

Article 195

The Official Gazette shall publish the rulings and decisions issued by the Supreme Constitutional Court, that are binding to all and all state authorities and have absolute authority over them.

The consequences of a decision regarding the unconstitutionality of a legislative text shall be regulated by the law.

Chapter Five: Judicial bodies

Article 196

State Lawsuits Authority shall be an independent judicial body. It shall undertake legal representation of the state in disputes to which the state is party. It may propose amicable settlement at any stage of the litigation, and it shall undertake technical supervision of cases raised by the legal affairs departments within state administration. It shall draft contracts referred to it by administrative bodies and to which the state is party. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Other competencies shall be defined by the law.

Its members shall have all the guarantees, rights and duties assigned to members of the judiciary, and the law shall regulate their disciplinary accountability.

Article 197

The Administrative Prosecution shall be an independent judicial body. It shall investigate financial and administrative irregularities, as well as those referred to it. It shall have the authority to impose disciplinary sanctions regarding these breaches. It verdicts may be appealed before the competent disciplinary court of the State Council.

It shall raise disciplinary proceedings and appeals before the courts of the State Council and follow up on them. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law. Other competencies shall be defined by the law.

Its members shall have all the guarantees, rights and duties assigned to members of the judiciary,  and the law shall regulate their disciplinary accountability.

Chapter Six: The legal profession

Article 198

The legal profession shall be a free profession and participate with the judicial authorities to realize justice, the rule of law and to ensure the right of defense. Lawyers shall be autonomous in practicing their profession, as shall lawyers of public sector companies and the public works sector.

While undertaking the right of defense before courts, all lawyers shall enjoy the guarantees and protection granted to them by the law, which shall also apply to them before investigation and trial authorities. They shall be safeguarded by guarantees that protect them and enable them to carry out their work effectively before investigation authorities. While practicing the right of defense before the courts, no lawyer may be arrested or detained except in cases of flagrante delicto. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Chapter Seven: Judicial aides

Article 199

Judicial experts, forensic experts, and notary publics shall be autonomous in practicing their profession. They shall enjoy the guarantees and protection required for the performance of their work, as regulated by the law.

Chapter Eight: Armed Forces and police

Section One: The Armed Forces

Article 200

The Armed Forces shall belong to the people. Their duty shall be to protect the country, and preserve its security and territories. The state alone shall create these forces. No individual, entity, organization or group is allowed to create military or paramilitary structures, groups or organizations.

The Armed Forces shall have a Supreme Council as regulated by the law.

Article 201

The minister of defense is the commander in chief of the Armed Forces, appointed from among its officers.

Article 202

The law shall regulate public mobilization and define the conditions of service, promotion and retirement in the Armed Forces.

The judicial committees for the officers and personnel of the Armed Forces shall have sole competence for adjudicating all administrative disputes pertaining to decisions affecting them, and the law shall regulate the rules and procedures for challenging the decisions of these committees.

Section Two: The National Defense Council

Article 203

A National Defense Council shall be created and presided over by the president of the republic, and include in its membership the prime minister, speaker of the House of Representatives, minister of defense, minister of foreign affairs, minister of finance, minister of the interior, chief of the General Intelligence Service, chief of staff of the Armed Forces, commanders of the Navy, Air Forces and Air Defense, chief of operations of the Armed Forces and the head of Military Intelligence.

The council shall be responsible for matters pertaining to the methods of ensuring the safety and security of the country and for discussing the budget of the Armed Forces which shall be listed as a single figure in the state budget. It shall be consulted regarding bills related to the Armed Forces. The council’s other competencies shall be defined by the law.

The head of financial affairs of the Armed Forces, and the heads of the Planning and Budget Committee and the Defense and National Security Committee in the House of Representatives shall be included in discussions on the budget. The president may invite those seen to have relevant expertise to attend the council’s meetings without their being able to vote.

Section Three: The Military Judiciary

Article 204

The Military Judiciary shall be an independent judiciary that adjudicates exclusively in all crimes related to the Armed Forces, its officers and personnel and their equals, and any crimes committed by General Intelligence personnel during or as a result of their service.

Civilians shall not stand trial before military courts except for crimes that constitute a direct assault on military installations, Armed Forces camps or whatever else falls under their authority, or on zones that are declared military zones or border zones, the military’s equipment, vehicles, weapons, ammunition, documents, military secrets, public finances or military factories, or crimes related to mandatory military service, or crimes that constitute a direct assault on the military’s officers or personnel because of the performance of their duties. The law shall determine these crimes and the other competencies of the Military Judiciary.

Members of the Military Judiciary shall be autonomous and may not be dismissed. They shall have all the guarantees, rights and duties assigned to members of the judiciary.

Section Four: The National Security Council

Article 205

The National Security Council shall be created and presided over by the president of the republic, and include in its membership the prime minister, the speaker of the House of Representatives, the minister of defense, the minister of the interior, the minister of foreign affairs, the minister of finance, the minister of justice, the minister of health, the minister of communication, the minister of education, the chief of the General Intelligence Services, and the head of the Committee of Defense and National Security in the House of Representatives.

The council shall adopt strategies for establishing security in the country; facing disasters and crises of all kinds and taking necessary measures to contain them; and identifying sources of threats to Egypt’s national security, whether at home or abroad, and undertaking the required actions to address them on the official and popular levels.

The council may invite those seen to have relevant expertise to attend its council’s meetings without their being able to vote.

The council’s other competencies and regulations shall be defined by the law.

Section Five: The police

Article 206

The police force shall be a statutory civil body, that acts in the service of the people and whose loyalty is to the people. It shall guarantee security and assurance for the citizenry and preserve public order and morality. It shall commit to upholding the duties stipulated in the Constitution and the law, and to respecting human rights and basic freedoms. The state shall guarantee that members of the police force perform their duties, and the law shall regulate the guarantees to ensure that this is the case.

Article 207

The Supreme Police Council shall be formed consisting of the most senior officers of the police force and the head of the relevant jurisdiction directorate in the State Council. The council shall assist the minister of the interior in organizing the police force and managing the affairs of its members. Its other competencies shall be defined by the law. The council shall be consulted regarding laws that relate to it.

Chapter Nine: The National Elections Commission

Article 208

The National Elections Commission shall be an independent body with sole competence for managing referenda and presidential, parliamentary and municipal elections, starting with the preparation and updating of a database of voters, suggesting the division of constituencies, determining the regulations of electoral campaigning, electoral financing and expenditure, and to oversee them, managing the procedures for voting for Egyptians residing abroad, and other procedures, up to the announcement of the results.

Article 209

The National Elections Commission shall be administered by a board made up of 10 members commissioned evenly from among the deputies of the Court of Cassation, heads of  the Courts of Appeal, the deputies of the head of the State Council, State Lawsuits Authority and Administrative Prosecution, and selected by the Supreme Judicial Council and special councils of the aforementioned judicial bodies according to the circumstances and from outside their board members, and appointed by presidential decree. They shall be delegated to work exclusively on the commission for one term of six years.

The presidency of the commission shall be occupied by its most senior member from the Court of Cassation, and half of the council’s members shall be renewed every three years.

The National Elections Commission may seek the assistance of public figures, specialists, and those with expertise in the field of elections, without their having the right to vote. The commission shall have a permanent executive apparatus, and the law shall determine its composition, system of operations, the rights and duties of its members and their guarantees in a way that ensures their impartiality, independence and integrity.

Article 210

Voting and counting of votes in referenda and elections shall be administered by the affiliated members of the National Elections Commission under the overall supervision of the board. It may also seek the assistance of members of judicial bodies.

Voting and counting of votes in referenda and elections that take place in the 10 years subsequent to this Constitution entering into force shall occur under complete judicial supervision by members of judicial bodies and entities, as regulated by the law.

The Supreme Administrative Court shall adjudicate on appeals brought against the commission’s decisions pertaining to referenda, parliamentary and presidential elections and their results. Appeals pertaining to municipal elections shall be brought before the Administrative Court.

The law shall determine the timeline for the filing of appeals and all appeals shall be settled with a final court order within 10 days of the date of filing

Chapter 10: Supreme councils for regulation of the press

Article 211

The Supreme Media Council shall be an independent authority and a legal entity and shall have technical, financial and administrative autonomy. Its budget shall be independent. It shall regulate the affairs of radio, television, and printed and digital press, among others.

The council shall ensure and protect the freedom of press and media in the forms stipulated in the Constitution, preserve its independence, impartiality, plurality and diversity, prevent monopolistic practices, monitor the integrity of the sources of funding of press and media organizations, and establish the required controls and regulations ensuring the adherence of the media and press to professional and ethical standards, and respect for national security needs, as regulated by the law.

The law shall determine the composition of the council, its system of operations and the conditions of employment of its staff. The council shall be consulted regarding bills and regulations related to its field of work.

Article 212

The National Press Association shall be an independent body that manages state-owned press institutions and undertakes their development and the development of their assets, to ensure their modernization, independence, impartiality and adherence to sensible professional, administrative and economic standards.

The law shall regulate the composition of the body, it system of operations and conditions of employment of its staff. It shall be consulted regarding bills and regulations related to its field of work.

Article 213

The National Media Association shall be an independent body that manages state-owned television, radio and digital media institutions and undertakes their development and the development of their assets to ensure their independence, impartiality and adherence to sensible professional, administrative and economic standards.

The law shall regulate the composition of the body, its system of operations and conditions of employment of its staff. It shall be consulted regarding bills and regulations related to its field of work.

Chapter 11: National Councils and independent bodies and regulatory agencies

Section One: National Councils

Article 214

The law shall regulate the independent national councils, including the National Council for Human Rights, the National Council for Women, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood and the National Council for Persons with Disabilities. The law shall stipulate the composition and mandate of each council, and shall guarantee the independence and impartiality of its members. The councils have the right to report to the general authorities any violations concerning their fields of work. These councils shall be legal entities and shall have technical, financial and administrative autonomy. They shall be consulted regarding bills and regulations related to their affairs and fields of work.

Section Two: Independent bodies and regulatory agencies

Article 215

The law shall regulate independent bodies and regulatory agencies. They shall be legal entities and shall have technical, financial and administrative autonomy. They shall be consulted regarding bills and regulations related to their fields of work. These bodies and agencies include the Central Bank, the General Financial Supervisory Authority, the Central Auditing Organization and the Administrative Control Authority.

Article 216

A law shall be issued defining the competencies of each independent body or regulatory agency that is created, that also regulates its system of operations, and stipulates guarantees for its independence and the necessary protection of its staff and other employment conditions in order to ensure their impartiality and independence.

The president of the republic shall appoint the heads of these bodies and agencies upon the approval of the House of Representatives by a majority of its members, for a period of four years, that may be renewed once. They shall not be dismissed from their posts except in those cases defined by the law. The same prohibitions that shall apply to ministers shall also apply to them.

Article 217

Independent bodies and regulatory agencies shall present annual reports to the president of the republic, the House of Representatives and the prime minister once they are issued. The House of Representatives shall consider such reports and take appropriate action within a period not exceeding four months of the date of receipt. The reports shall be released to the public. Independent and regulatory agencies shall notify the appropriate investigative authorities of any evidence of violations or crimes that they may discover, and they shall take the necessary measures with regard to these reports within a specified period of time. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 218

The state shall commit to combating corruption, and the law shall stipulate the bodies and regulatory agencies whose competencies relate to this. These competent bodies and regulatory agencies shall coordinate with one another to combat corruption, promote the values ​​of integrity and transparency to ensure the proper performance of public functions, preserve public funds and develop and monitor the implementation of the national strategy to combat corruption in coordination with other competent bodies and agencies, as regulated by the law.

Article 219

The Central Auditing Organization shall monitor state funds public legal entities and other bodies specified by the law, monitor the implementation of the state budget and independent budgets and review their final audits.

Article 220

The Central Bank shall set monetary, credit and banking policies, supervise their implementation, and monitor the performance of the banking system. The Central Bank shall be exclusively entitled to issue banknotes. It shall maintain the security of the monetary and banking system and price stability within the framework of the state’s general political and economic policy, as regulated by the law.

Article 221

The General Financial Supervisory Authority shall regulate and supervise markets, non-banking financial instruments, including capital markets, future stock markets, insurance activities, real estate funding, leasing, and factoring and securitization, as regulated by the law.

Part Six: General and transitional provisions

Section One: General provisions

Article 222

Cairo is the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt.

Article 223

The national flag of the Arab Republic of Egypt shall comprise three colors, which are black, white and red, with “Eagle of Saladin” in golden yellow. The emblem of the republic, decorations, insignia, seal and the national anthem shall be defined by the law. Desecrating the Egyptian flag is a crime punishable by the law.

Article 224

Provisions stipulated by laws and regulations prior to the proclamation of this Constitution shall remain valid and in force. They may not be amended or repealed except in accordance with the regulations and procedures prescribed in the Constitution. The state shall commit to issuing laws implementing the provisions of this Constitution.

Article 225

Laws shall be published in the Official Gazette within 15 days of the date of their issuance, to be effective 30 days from the day following the date of publication, unless the law has specified a different date.

Provisions of the laws shall apply only from the date on which they enter into force. However, provisions to the contrary may be made in articles pertaining to matters that are neither criminal nor related to tax with the approval by a two-thirds majority of the House of Representatives.

Article 226

The amendment of one or more articles of the Constitution may be requested by the president of the republic or one-fifth of the members of the House of Representatives. The request shall specify the articles to be amended and the reasons for the amendments.

In all cases, the House of Representatives shall debate the request within 30 days of the date of its receipt, and issue its decision to accept the request in whole or in part by a majority of its members.

If the request is rejected, the same amendments may not be requested before the next legislative term.

If the amendment request is approved by the House of Representatives, it shall discuss the text of the articles to be amended within 60 days of the date of approval. If approved, the amendment shall be put to public referendum within 30 days of the date of approval.

The amendment shall be effective from the date on which the result of the referendum is announced with the approval of a valid majority in the referendum.

In all cases, any articles related to re-election of the president of the republic or the principles of freedom and equality shall not be amended, unless the amendment entails further guarantees.

Article 227

All of the articles of the Constitution with its preamble are a coherent tapestry that is an integral whole that may not be divided, and all the provisions of the Constitution constitute one coherent unit.

Section Two: Transitional Provisions

Article 228

The High Elections Commission and the High Presidential Elections Commission, existing at the time this Constitution enters into force, shall undertake the full supervision of the first parliamentary and presidential elections subsequent to its entering into force. The funds of these bodies will be transferred to the National Elections Commission as soon as it is formed.

Article 229

The first elections of the House of Representatives subsequent to the Constitution entering into force shall take place in accordance with the provisions of Article 102.

Article 230

The elections of the president and the House of Representatives shall be regulated by law and the first shall begin within a period no less than 30 days and not exceeding 90 days of the date the Constitution enters into force. In all cases, the next elections shall begin within a period not exceeding six months of the date the Constitution enters into force.

Article 231

The presidential term following the adoption of this Constitution shall begin on the date that the final result of the election is announced.  

Article 232

The interim president of the republic shall continue to exercise the presidential powers stipulated in the Constitution until the elected  president of the republic takes  the constitutional oath.

Article 233

If a temporary hindrance prevents the interim president from fulfilling the presidential functions, the prime minister shall act in the interim president’s place.

If the interim presidential becomes vacant due to resignation, death, permanent inability to work or for any other reason, the most senior deputy of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take the position.

Article 234

The minister of defense shall be appointed upon the approval of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. The provisions of this article shall remain in force for two full presidential terms, beginning from the date on which the Constitution enters into force.

Article 235

The House of Representatives shall issue a law in its first term after the Constitution enters into force regulating the building and renovation of churches, ensuring that Christians have the freedom to practice their religious rituals.

Article 236

The state shall develop and implement a plan for the comprehensive economic and urban of the border areas and other disadvantaged areas, including Upper Egypt, Sinai, Matrouh and Nubia. This shall occur with the participation of local residents in development projects who will be the primary beneficiaries, taking into account the cultural and environmental trends of the local community. This development plan shall be carried out within 10 years of this Constitution entering into force, and as regulated by the law.

The state shall work on developing and implementing projects to return the residents of Nubia to their native areas and develop them within 10 years and as regulated by the law.
 

Article 237

The state shall commit to combating terrorism, in all its forms and manifestations, and tracking its sources of funding within a specific timeframe, in light of the threat it represents to the nation and its citizens, while public rights and freedoms are guaranteed.  

The law shall regulate the provisions and procedures for combating terrorism, and for fair compensation for any resultant damages.

Article 238

The state shall guarantee the implementation of its commitment to the allocation of minimum government spending rates on education, higher education, and health and scientific research that are stipulated in this Constitution. This shall occur gradually as of the date the Constitution enters into force, and will be fully executed in the state budget in the fiscal year 2116-2117.

The state shall commit to extend compulsory education until the end of secondary school, in a gradual manner until it is fully executed in the school year 2116/ 2117.

Article 239

The House of Representatives shall issue a law regulating the rules for delegating judges and members of judicial bodies and entities to ensure the cancellation of full and partial delegation to non-judicial bodies, committees with judicial competence, and the management of judicial matters and election monitoring elections. This shall occur within a period that does not exceed five years of the date on which this Constitution enters into force.

Article 240

The state shall guarantee the provision of financial and human resources pertaining to appealing rulings issued by criminal courts within 10 years of the date that this Constitution enters into force. The foregoing shall be regulated by the law.

Article 241

The House of Representatives commits to issuing in its first term after this Constitution comes into force a transitional justice law that will ensure the revealing of the truth and accountability, and propose frameworks for national reconciliation and the compensation of victims, in accordance with international standards.

Article 242

The existing system of local administration shall remain in force until the system stipulated in the Constitution is fully implemented, which will be carried out gradually over a five-year period from the date on which this Constitution enters into force, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 181 of this Constitution.

Article 243

The state shall endeavor to ensure appropriate representation of workers and farmers in the first House of Representatives elected following the adoption of this Constitution, as regulated by the law.

Article 244

The state shall endeavor to ensure appropriate of youth, Christians, people with disabilities, and Egyptians living abroad in the first House of Representatives elected following the adoption of this Constitution, as regulated by the law.

Article 245

Employees of the Shura Council serving on the date that this Constitution is adopted shall be transferred to the House of Representatives, with the same titles and levels of seniority that they occupied on that date. Their salaries, allowances and bonuses and other financial rights prescribed to them in a personal capacity shall be preserved. All funds of the Shura Council shall be transferred to the House of Representatives.

Article 246

The Constitutional Declaration issued on 5 July 2013, the Constitutional Declaration issued on 8 July, and any constitutional texts or provisions stipulated in the 2012 Constitution and not covered in this constitutional document shall be repealed from the date that it enters into force. Their consequent effects remain in force.

Article 247

This constitutional document shall enter into force on the date of the announcement of its approval by the people in a referendum with a majority of valid votes.

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